Friday, September 29, 2017

Italy through the eyes and words of others (Part II)

The Duomo in Florence dominates the city from Piazzale
Michelangelo  (wikipedia)
ITALY No destination in the world has a more immediate impact on travelers than Italy. It is a country that thrives on organized chaos and incongruity inspiring more artists, poets, writers and musicians than other place on earth. Anything anyone writes or says about the most famous "boot" in the world is almost certainly going to be redundant.

From the moment you are washed in its glorious sunshine that reflects the earth tones of centuries of creativity amid spectacular gardens, landscaping and sensual breezes, you know that Italy is one of a kind.
Stunning Amalfi Coast
(wikipedia)
As such, it seems appropriate to revisit some of the classic reflections of others regarding this hedonistic peninsula that civilized the world not once but twice in its history.


For those who have had the joy of traveling to Italy at least once, savor the thoughts of others and reflect upon them as you acknowledge their wisdom.
Rugged coastline toward Positano where Hotel San Pietro is
almost invisible  (wikipedia)

“Italians think reiteration is a form of argument, of logic, even.”
-- Barbara Grizzuti Harrison – Italian Days


“Italians have an astonishing ability to cope with disaster, which is equaled only by their complete inability to deal with success.”
-- Gore Vidal
The Colosseum  in Rome
(wikipedia)


 “What do we find in Italy that can be found nowhere else?  I believe it is a certain permission to be human that other countries lost long ago.” 
-- Erica Jong


“The seven deadly sins seem somewhat less deadly in Italy; the Ten Commandments slightly more malleable.  This is a country that not only accepts contradictions; it positively encourages them.” 
-- Erica Jong
Ancient streets of Pompeii remind us of a glorious past (Taylor)

“Being in Italy is rather like being in love.  So what if people have been in love before?  So what if Italy has been a tourist trap for at least a thousand years?   So what if everything you say in criticism – or praise – of Italy has already been said?  Writers and travelers yet unborn will say it all again, blissfully unaware that anyone has uttered the same thoughts before.”
-- Erica Jong

Ravello is like peering down from heaven  (wikipedia)

Italy is the opposite of Russia.  In Moscow nothing is known yet everything is clear.  In Rome everything is public, there are no secrets, everybody talks, things are at time flamboyantly enacted, yet one understands nothing.”
-- Luigi Barzini – The Italians


“Painters have sons and painter’s sons have fathers, and in Italy genius runs in the blood.”
-- Barbara Grizzuti Harrison – Italian Days
"The Wedding Cake" (Taylor)


“Reliance on symbols and spectacles must be clearly grasped if one wants to understand Italy, Italian history, manners, civilization, habits and to foresee the future.  It is fundamental to the national character.  It is one of the reasons why the Italians have always excelled in all activities in which the appearance is predominant: architecture, decoration, landscape gardening, the figurative arts, pageantry, fireworks, ceremonies, opera, and now industrial design, stage jewelry, fashions and the cinema.  Italian medieval armor was the most beautiful in Europe: it was highly decorated, elegantly shaped, well-designed, but too light and thin to be used in combat.  In war the Italians themselves preferred the German armor, which was ugly but practical.  It was safer.”
-- Luigi Barzini – The Italians

The great Roman baths of Caracalla  (Taylor)

“Romans are attuned to beauty, to art, to culture.  They are convinced that the way to a satisfied soul, to a life worth living, is through the expression of creativity.  Romans are convinced that beauty is the best investment you can make in life.”
-- Alan Epstein –As The Romans Do

And finally, who better to quote than one of the greatest artists in history, Michelangelo. When he was in his early 20s Michelangelo sculpted "The Pieta" followed in the next five years by "The David."
The Grand Canal beckons amid the charms of Venice  (Taylor)

At the age of 33, he reluctantly painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The project took four years to complete. Oddly enough, when Japan paid for the restoration of the ceiling, it took 12 years to clean it.

When Michelangelo was in his 80s, he designed the cupola of St. Peter's Basilica using the architectural concepts of Filippo Brunelleschi who had solved the same structural impossibilities while creating the Duomo in Florence, Michelangelo's home city.
Sunset at the Colosseum in Rome  (wikipedia)

In tribute to the genius of Italy, its artists and art, we close with the words of Michelangelo who wrote:

“Nowhere does God, in His space, reveal himself to me more clearly than in some lovely human form, which I love solely because it is a mirrored image of himself.”


Friday, September 22, 2017

Best of two worlds: The Adler Spa and Tuscany

The Adler Thermae and Spa beckons with Tuscan serenity
(Adler Thermae)
Bagno Vignoni, Italy  Some things just naturally belong together: peanut butter and jelly, Popeye and Olive Oyl, shoes and socks, black and white, ham and eggs and, of course, Tuscany and spas.. Which means the Adler Thermae and Spa in Tuscany is as "natural" as it gets.

Situated between the Italian wine regions of Montepulciano and Montalcino, the Adler Thermae Resort and Spa features 90 luxurious room and suites, all of which have a balcony or terrace overlooking the Val d'Orcia.
Relaxing in pristine surroundings  (Adler Thermae)
Val d'Orcia features pristine, untouched landscapes filled with rolling hills covered with vineyards, sunflowers and grain surrounding the Orcia River which are the hallmark of this yet to be discovered region in southern Tuscany.
Twilight in Tuscany
(Adler Thermae)
Owned and operated by the Sanoner family which has been in the hotel business since 1810, the Adler Thermae Resort and Spa is one of four resorts managed by the Sanoners, with the other three located in the Dolomite mountain region of Italy.

Now in the family's seventh generation of ownership, Adler Spa is as beguiling as it is welcoming with hospitable charms which set it apart with distinctive flair.
Shopping for wine and cheese
(Adler Thermae)
The Adler Thermae Resort is more than a spa however. It is a pioneer in wellness and relaxation featuring a menu of more than 120 treatments that combine superb natural products with state-of-the-art equipment to provide the maximum in homeopathy, herbal medicine, nutrition and alternative healing techniques.
Taking the plunge Adler style  (Adler Thermae)
As 2017 comes to a close, three popular aspects of the Adler Thermae are the innovative yoga-based holiday packages which have been designed to accommodate all levels of experience. The yoga programs compliment the five-star property's 1,000 square feet of indoor/outdoor pools, baths and saunas that even male the ancient Roman baths at Caracalla pale by comparison.
Home suite home
(Adler Thermae)
Yoga workshops will be held in November and December with each program led by English speaking experts in their field. The seminars are open to spa guests from all levels of knowledge.

Yoga Experience – The Goddess Whisperer (November 26 through 30:  from approximately $1,060 per person) will be led by Anna Lisa Tempestini, who will work with guests looking to reconnect with their female energy by,  “exploring feminine mythology and archetypes and learning asana sequences to refine the perception of energy in the body.” Tempestini, who lives near the Montalcino region in a 16th century villa, is also a winemaker and cooking instructor. The four-day retreat begins on the Monday after Thanksgiving.
The retreat includes:
  • Seven 90-minute yoga classes with Anna Lisa (two daily between Monday and Wednesday, and a final morning class on Thursday)
  • One €100 spa gift certificate
  • One Adler welcome gift
Every room has a view of the Val d'Orcia (Adler Thermae)
Yoga-O (December 3 through 7; from about $1,170 per person) will help participants start their yoga practice anew (the “O” stands for zero, or “new beginning”) with yoga instructor Massimiliano D'Apolito. The yoga workshops will focus not only on traditional poses, but also encourage guests to practice proper alignment in their daily activities, whether they’re driving, sitting at a desk or lounging on a couch. Ayurvedic specialist Dr. Nahrendu Babu will also be available to share expertise on diet, exercise, meditation and more.

The program includes:
  • Four 90-minute daily yoga classes
  • Two yoga massage sessions, with the instructor both assisting the student in various poses and performing massage techniques
  • One private session with Dr. Babu to define the dosha, or mind-body type that’s responsible for physiological activity
  • One Euro €100 voucher discount for treatments recommended by the practitioners
  • One Adler welcome gift
Thermal waters and primeval surroundings eliminate tension
(Adler Thermae)
Ashtanga Yoga & Ayurveda (December 10 through 14; from $998 per person) will be led by Elena De Martin, director of the Ashtanga Yoga School in Milan. Ashtanga is a vigorous, physically challenging style of yoga that synchronizes breath and movement and helps strengthen all areas of the body, especially the core. De Martin spent many years studying with and assisting Lino Miele, one of Italy’s leading yoga teachers who was a direct disciple of Ashtanga founder K. Pattabhi Jois.

Included:
  • Half board (breakfast and one other meal)
  • Seven two-hour yoga classes with Elena (two daily between Monday and Wednesday, and a final morning class on Thursday)
  • One 50-minute Ayurvedic treatment (guests may choose the Abhyanga Massage, a full-body treatment using warm sesame oil; the Udvarthana Massage with deep-cleansing herbal pastes; or the Haki Flow massage to support proper body alignment, performed in thermal water)
  • One Adler welcome gift
It just doesn't get any better than this  (Adler Thermae)
Adler Thermae's three yoga packages are the ideal way to relax between Thanksgiving and Christmas in the glorious surroundings of Tuscany.


The Adler Thermae Spa is guaranteed not to be your "last resort."  

Friday, September 15, 2017

Baptisms in the River Jordan

For Christians, being baptized at the site where Jesus was
immersed is a meaningful experience  (Taylor)
YARDENIT, ISRAEL — One of the great joys of travel is having an experience that is completely out of the realm of your every day routine. Whether it is joining in with locals at the Palio horse race in Siena, Italy or kissing the Blarney Stone in Ireland or racing through the Channel Tunnel at 186-miles an hour, the memories last forever.

Visitors to the Holy Land travel there to see sights and shrines that have been a part of their lives since the day they were born. Christians, Jews and Muslims share many of the same stories and locations regardless of their beliefs.
Nearly half a million people from around the world come each
year for the baptismal ceremony  (wikipedia)
For Christians, the two most popular destinations are Bethlehem where Christ was born and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre where he is believed to have been buried before the resurrection.

But there's a third locale which brings more than half a million travelers and pilgrims each year to celebrate a ritual that is truly meaningful for everyone who participates. The site is Yardenit, situated at the entrance to Kibbutz Kinneret where the Southern tip of the Sea of Galilee flows into the River Jordan.
Taking the waters
(Taylor)

The attraction? The opportunity to be baptized in the waters where Jesus was baptized by his cousin, John the Baptist.
Built with the blessing and help of the Ministry of Tourism of Israel in 1981, Yardenit was established to offer a haven and sanctuary for visitors wishing to be baptized in the River Jordan. Founded in 1913 by immigrants from Eastern Europe, Kinneret is the second oldest kibbutz in Israel.
Upon arrival, one of the first things visitors experience at Yardenit is a verse from the Gospel of Mark describing the baptism of Christ in hand painted tiles by Armenian artist Hagop Antreasssian. The "Wall of New Life", written in over 80 languages and dialects reads:

“In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. And when he came up out of water, immediately he saw the heavens opened and the Spirit descending upon him like a dove, and a voice came from heaven; ‘Thou art my beloved Son, with thee I am well pleased.” Mark 1:9-11

Like the Ganges in India, the River Jordan is considered one of the world's most sacred rivers, for different reasons, of course. It is mentioned approximately 175 times in the Old Testament and about 15 times in the New Testament.
The source of the River Jordan near the Syrian border  (Taylor)
"Jordan" is derived from the Hebrew word "Yarden" which means "descender." "Yardenit" translates to mean "little Jordan River."

Named after the Sea of Galilee, nearby Kibbutz Kinneret operates the baptismal site where entry is free for all who wish to watch and/or participate. There are also several quiet areas for meditations, prayers and contemplation.

Watching and waiting
(Taylor)
Other than the infrastructure for viewing and crowd maintenance, the banks of the river are as pastoral and serene as they would have been 2000 years ago where tranquil greenery and wildlife abound. Playful Otters are frequent visitors to the river without intruding upon the rituals at hand.

In addition, there are handrails and wheelchair accessible ramps leading into the river and the river is constantly monitored for water quality and safety.

Of course, there are gift shops and places for food and, though the baptisms are free, there are small charges for some facilities and services. For example, participants are required to wear special white robes, which can be rented or purchased at the site.

Dressing rooms are available and swim suits or other clothing can be worn under the robe, but participants must don the robe in order to take part in the rite.
Yardenit is a quiet place where solitude is ideal atmosphere
(Taylor)
Groups are commonplace at Yardenit, and many guests wish to have a priest perform the ceremony. The kibbutz has no resident clergy on site, however there are local priests available who can perform the services upon request.

The Jordan was a relatively desolate area for centuries, which made adventurous travelers even more appreciative of the opportunity to experience one of the great moments in religious history.
Bethlehem is the most visited
site for Americans (Taylor)

In 1932, with the construction of the Naharayim hydraulic plant which harnessed the Yarnukh and Jordan Rivers for electricity, the area underwent a dramatic change that allowed the Yardenit site to be constructed.

Despite that, as with so many things in the Middle East, the Yardenit baptismal site is not without controversy.

For obvious reasons, Israel has long maintained that Jesus was baptized on the Israeli side of the river rather than the opposite shore which is the country of Jordan. Thanks to archaeological research, scholars are increasingly leaning toward the Jordanian site rather than that of Israel.

In fact, when Pope Francis visited the Holy Land last year, he purposely held a Mass at the Jordanian location, which added credibility to the claim.
Dhows still ply the waters of the Sea of Galilee much as they
did in the time of Jesus Christ  (Taylor)
Though a predominantly Muslim country, Jordan relies heavily on tourism revenue for its economy. Because the baptism of Jesus is generally considered the beginning of Christ's ministry, Jordan has even gone so far as to use the slogan "Jordan, the birthplace of Christianity." 
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is the second most visited
site by Christians in the Holy Land  (Taylor)
The primary baptismal site for Jordan is just downriver from Yardenit where the river widens. There is also slightly better access to the waters for those who wish to be baptized at that location.
Renewing faith  (wikimedia)

One other important difference is the baptismal font which has been restored in Jordan for those who prefer to be sprinkled rather than totally immersed.
Whether you choose Israel or Jordan, the River Jordan baptism is a truly unique experience provided, that is, that you can look beyond the presence of soldiers from each country standing guard as pilgrims sing hymns, pray and get baptized in the holy waters that flow into the Dead Sea.




Friday, September 8, 2017

Making the most of the joy of travel

Hotel San Pietro hides within the rock of the dramatic Amalfi Coast  (wikipedia)

CHARLOTTE, NC Seeing a place for the first time is one of the great pleasures of travel, but visiting a destination for the second or third time is often more rewarding. Once you have seen all the "mandatory" sights, then you can begin to enjoy "travel for travel's sake."
Cascading wonder of the Plitvice Lakes in Croatis  (wikipedia)
Each of us is unique and, as such, we all travel in different ways with different perspectives. Many travelers go in search of something new each time they venture forth. Others are content to return to familiar places, destinations that become like an old shoe because they suit someone's lifestyle.

It doesn't really matter how or why people travel. For veteran travelers or even novices who want to attempt something different, pick an aspect or two of travel and immerse yourself in it. It could be people watching at a sidewalk cafe or a few contemplative moments in a massive centuries-old cathedral or surrounding yourself in a peaceful country setting where time seems to stand still.
Metro station in Moscow
(wikipedia)

Over the years I have come to understand how certain times of day affect my attitude.  I adore the serene, soothing freshness of a new day.  Barbara Grizzuti Harrison described an Italian dawn as arriving "with theatrical brush strokes,” and early morning for me has, indeed, become a time of renewal. 

I cherish those precious golden moments when the veil of night lifts to reveal the dewiness of daybreak.  When the world seems cleansed with coolness and moisture that beckons through a scrim of earth-clinging clouds, whispers in flowers and trees, gently nourishing them in clear, tiny droplets of life, caressing them in a misty shroud. 
Sukothai, Thailand's ancient capital
(wikipedia)

That time of day when a peach-colored sun is little more than a formless shape in the sky, innocent and subdued, dispersing gradations of light across the horizon.  When birds are hushed silhouettes with wings, made all the more distinct by the backlit palette of a delicate pastel sky, a sky that will swiftly yield to the frantic turmoil of commerce and enterprise. 

Morning is that fleeting portion of the day when tranquility prevails with muffled sounds that introduce a sunrise, all unified into a single uplifting serenade.  Daybreak is a symphony for my soul.
Morning dawns on the plains of Kenya  (Lasater)
Whenever possible I enjoy sipping coffee and watching the day unfold with a freshness all its own. For me, writing a description of those experiences are moments of pure joy where I can lose myself in another world all my own.
The Treasury at Petra (wikipedia)

"The piazza was buzzing with the rhythms of the day and a passion for living; fishermen sorting their catches and hosing down the decks of their tiny boats, vendors lining the pier with buckets of fresh squid, laundry lines filled with sheets and pillowcases and personal items strung between ancient mustard colored buildings, gray haired women dressed entirely in black peering from third story windows, observing the same daily rituals they had watched continuously from the same locations for decades, small groups of men, two, three, sometimes four, flailing their arms and hands with gestures to emphasize their points of view, the topic being secondary to what really mattered, which was the flair and the amount of expression with which the opinion was expressed, sidewalk cafes with waiters clanking dishes and glasses as they flitted among their mazes of tables, tethered children crying and reaching for elusive, brightly colored balloons, lovers walking hand in hand, so infatuated with each other that nothing else existed.
Wine bar in Stein am Rhein
Switzerland (Taylor)

"There were smells too.  And street sounds.  A feast for the senses.  People shouting from distant hidden doorways and alleys.  Invisible voices from upstairs apartments singing opera that permeate into the clamor of the streets, creating a theatrical backdrop for this elaborate outdoor stage. 

"Motor scooters zipping helter-skelter between people as if choreographed not to run into anyone or anything.  Fruit and vegetable stalls, and freshly cut flowers. 
Steam train crosses the Glenfinnian Viaduct in Scotland  (wikipedia) 
"This was a place where participation was mandatory, yet it was also a place where one could remain entirely anonymous.  It was a pageant, a carousel, a parade and a circus all wrapped into a single piazza, performed under a canopy of sunny, blue Mediterranean sky, and orchestrated by life itself."  
The Taj Mahal in Agra, India  (Taylor)
Traveling keeps you young, at least in spirit and in mind, if not body.
Tunnel to paradise in Croatia
(wikipedia)

 Travel is intoxicating. Barbara Grizzuti Harrison once wrote, "My unconscious mind reached a deep intuitive understanding of the past (my past), only to see more levels, deeper levels, hidden pasts.  It meanders sinuously among artifacts lost and found, unknown but known.  It travels many ways to arrive in the same place."
Berlin's Brandenburg Gate  (wikipedia
Perhaps the words of Daniel Boorstin sum up the wonder of travel best:  "A traveler goes in search of people, of adventure, of experience.  A tourist goes for sightseeing.  Just like the question is more interesting than a statement, and a road more intriguing than a map, I aspired to be a traveler.  Be brave.  Go through open gates.”
Dramatic Cliffs of Moher, Ireland  (Taylor
 Find that empty gate and wander through it. You will not be disappointed and your life will become richer.

Friday, September 1, 2017

Spend a day (or more) on the Lake of Lucerne in Switzerland

Another glorious morning greets Lucerne and its famed Chapel Bridge  (wikipedia)
LUCERNE, SWITZERLAND  For many Americans making their first visit to Switzerland, Lucerne is arguably the most popular destinations. As a matter of fact, veteran travelers never seem to tire of Lucerne either. Nestled in a bowl surrounded by majestic alpine vistas, Lake Lucerne spills into the River Reuss beneath the ancient Chapel Bridge to capture everyone's imagination.
The Jesuit Church beside the River Reuss is another popular spot
(wikipedia)
Lucerne's Old Town with its frescoed facades is a shopper's delight amid charming narrow streets and colorful cafes.

But once you have explored all the village has to offer, there is much more to see and do in the area. If you are traveling with a Swiss Travel System Pass, an outing on the lake is the perfect excursion to satisfy all your wanderlust needs.
The lake is a great way to tour
(Taylor)
Using the rail pass as your ticket to free transportation on lake steamers and many other modes of travel, begin at the docks directly across from the railway station. It doesn't matter which direction you choose, but for this program we will journey in a roughly figure-8 direction aboard one of the many boats that sail across the lake.
The Wagner Museum is a pleasant discovery because many
travelers do not know about it  (MySwitzerland.com)
First stop is the Richard Wagner Museum where the great German composer lived and worked with his second wife and children from 1866-1872. Photographs, paintings, letters and, of course, musical scores are on display in the country manor in Tribschen.
Swiss "cablevision" of Pilatus
(MySwitzerland.com)

A highlight of the outing is the Frard grand piano on which Wagner completed his works. Today, the site is frequently used for concerts in which the piano often plays a significant role.

Next, Mount Pilatus, which is actually comprised of several peaks, of which the highest is Tomilshorn at nearly 7,000 feet.
Pilatus has the steepest cogwheel train in the world
((MySwitzerland.com)
From the boat landing in Alpnachstad walk across the road to catch the Pilatus Railway, the steepest cogwheel train in the world. Trains only operate from May to November, but there are panoramic cable cars that run year-round from Kriens.
Cog train to Pilatus
(wikipedia)


HINT: If the Lake Lucerne trip seems too ambitious, skip the outing to Pilatus and do it as separate half-day excursion later. By doing this, you can take the cable car from Kriens up to Pilatus and go down on the cogwheel train where you can catch the boat back to Lucerne.
The highest outdoor elevator in the world will raise your spirits
(MySwitzerland.com)
After Pilatus, cross the lake to the Hammetschwand to ascend the highest outdoor elevator in the world at over 500 feet. Built by hotel entrepreneur and railway businessman Franz Josef Bucher, the 111-year old elevator rises above Lake Lucerne with unbelievable panoramas. At the top, walk the path to the Burgenstock Resort before taking the funicular down to the landing where your lake journey continues.
Lake view from Hammetschwand
(MySwitzerland.com)
From the funicular, be sure to look to the left on the lake where you can watch your boat as it steams to the dock to pick you up; an ideal example of Swiss precision and engineering.

Now cross the lake again to disembark at the lovely Park Hotel in Vitznau. Even without reading this article you will recognize the hotel which dominates the surroundings on the shore of the lake. The Park Hotel has been reviving road-weary travelers for more than a century.
The Park Hotel Vitznau dominates the view of Lake Lucerne
ParkHotel-Vitznau,ch)
 
Stop for a snack or a coffee before taking a short walk to the Rigi Railways. Reaching a height of just under 6,000-feet above sea level, the Rigi is the highest standard gauge railway in Europe. The Vitznau-Rigi Bahn (train), the first mountain rack railway in Europe and second in the world behind the Mount Washington Cog Railway in the US, was written about by Mark Twain in his book "Innocents Abroad."
Steaming to the Rigi, just as Mark Twain did (wikiwand)
For variety, and another adventure on the return, take the cable car back to Vitznau and catch the boat to the next stop on the journey.
Schiller Rock is an important monument for the Swiss
(MySwitzerland.com)
Don't be surprised to see as many Swiss on the boat as there are visitors because this is the region where Switzerland officially became a confederation in 1291.
Boat landing at Rutli Meadow
(MySwitzerlandc.com)
En route to RutliMeadow, known as the "birthplace of Switzerland", pay attention to the rock that rises like an obelisk from the lake. This is Schiller Stone, a monument dedicated to German playwright and poet Friedrich Schiller who wrote his widely acclaimed play "William Tell" about the legendary Swiss national hero. Oddly enough Schiller never visited Switzerland
Traditional alphorns welcome guests to the birthplace of Switzeland  (MySwitzerland.com)
Get off the boat at Rutli Meadow to visit the site where it is  said the oath of the Swiss Confederation was taken in 1291 by the three original cantons; Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden. As with the 4th of July in the US, August 1 is celebrated as Swiss Independence Day.
Massive grinder dug the
Gotthard Base Tunnel  (Taylor)

Now relax for a while before making a stop at the Swiss Museum of Transport. Opened in 1959, the museum features all forms of transportation in Switzerland including trains, ships, automobiles and aircraft.

Perhaps most impressive are the displays highlighting the construction of the Gotthard Base Tunnel, the world's longest (35.5 miles) and deepest (1.4 miles). This marvel of engineering opened in December of 2016.
Access road into the Gotthard Base Tunnel  (Taylor)
Next door to the transportation museum is Hans Erni Haus, a collection of work by one of Switzerland's most beloved artists.
Steaming for home after a marvelous day on Lake Lucerne
(MySwitzerland.com)
Take the steamer back to the landing and you've completed your day into Swiss history, engineering and precision. Best of all, if you are using a Swiss Travel Pass, many of the entrance fees are either free or greatly reduced.